About Deerfield

Launched in 1994, Deerfield Management Company is an investment firm dedicated to advancing healthcare through information, investment, and philanthropy—all toward the end goal of cures for disease, improved quality of life, and reduced cost of care.

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Supporting companies across the healthcare ecosystem with flexible funding models…

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A New York City-based not-for-profit devoted to advancing innovative health care initiatives.

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Portfolio Companies

Deerfield generally maintains a combined portfolio of more than 150 private and public investments across the life science, medical device, diagnostic, digital health and health service industries at all stages of evolution from start-up to mature company.

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Research Collaborations

Deerfield partners with leading academic research centers, providing critical funding and expertise to further sustain and accelerate the commercialization of discoveries toward meaningful societal impact by advancing cures for disease.

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Strategic Partners

As a strategic partner, Deerfield offers capital, scientific expertise, business operating support, and unique access to innovation.

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Deerfield Foundation

The Deerfield Foundation is a New York City-based not-for-profit organization whose mission is to improve health, accelerate innovation and promote human equity.

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Cure Campus

Cure is a 12-story innovations campus in New York City that intends to bring together innovators from academia, government, industry, and the not-for-profit sectors to advance human health and accelerate the fight against disease.

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Cure Programming

Cure has a series of expert lectures intended to advance thought in healthcare, management, innovation, policy, and other relevant subjects. This fosters growth and education for those at Cure and its guests.

Events at the Cure

Epidemiology of low dose aspirin use for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Aspirin therapy has been shown to be an effective prevention measure to reduce the risk of new (primary) or recurring (secondary) cardiovascular events.


The aim of this study was to provide an epidemiological analysis of the use of low-dose aspirin for primary and secondary CVD prevention from 2012–2014.

Materials and Methods

The data source was the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a multipurpose survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian, oninstitutionalized population of the United States. Estimates of self-reported low-dose aspirin use for primary and secondary CVD prevention among adults ≥40 years of age were obtained from the NHIS for the years 2012–2014. Demographics and health characteristics data were used to analyze intergroup differences for the combined time period, as well as intragroup differences from year to year. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-squared test, while continuous variables were analyzed using a oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) or independent samples t-test.


Among adults ≥40 years of age during 2012-2014, 18.7% selfreported as taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention and 8.9% self-reported as taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention. During the full time period of 2012-2014, females represented 55.1% of patients taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention, but 45.3% of patients taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention (p<0.0001). Adults taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention were significantly older on average than those taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention (68.5 ± 11.1 vs. 65.8 ± 11.2 years; p<0.0001). The proportion of adults taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention significantly increased from 18.3% in 2012 to 19.4% in 2014 (p=0.003), while there was no statistically significant change in the proportion taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention. Compared with adults taking aspirin for primary CVD prevention, those taking aspirin for secondary CVD prevention had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbidities such as cancer (22.0% vs. 17.4%; p<0.0001), diabetes (43.5% vs. 33.2%; p<0.0001), hypertension (67.1% vs. 52.9%; p<0.0001), and high cholesterol (56.2% vs. 44.2%; p<0.0001). Conclusions This study shows that over 25% of the population over 40 years of age in the United States self-reports as taking lowdose aspirin for primary or secondary CVD prevention, with primary CVD prevention patients outnumbering secondary CVD prevention patients at a ratio of more than 2:1. Aspirin use for primary CVD prevention increased throughout the study period. While there was no statistically significant change in aspirin use for secondary CVD prevention, the trend appeared to be decreasing during the study period.